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Albinism

Albinism

Albinism defines as the oculocutaneous problem in which there is little or no production of the pigment melanin in the body. Melanin is the pigment which gives the color to the skin, hairs, and your eyes. It is a genetic disorder. Melanin also required for the development of optic nerves, therefore, people with albinism have vision problems also.

Symptoms

Albinism has signs and symptoms which involve skin eye color, hair, and vision problems.

Skin

  • Moles with or without pigmentationAlbinism
  • Freckles
  • Sunburn
  • Tanning
  • Lentigines

Hairs

  • White to brown hair color
  • Asian people some time developed yellow to red color
  • Hair color darker with age

Eye color

  • Eyelashes and eyebrows are faded
  • Eye color may vary from light blue to brown and change with age
  • Translucent iris

Vision

  • Sensitivity to light
  • Extreme refractive errors
  • Nystagmus
  • Abnormal curvature of the eyeball
  • Abnormal signals from the retina to the brain
Causes

The mutation is the major cause of albinism. A mutation occurs in the melanin-producing cells melanocytes which are present in your skin hair and eye.

Types of albinism

  • Ocular albinism
  • Oculocutaneous albinism
  • Albinism related to hereditary syndromes
Complications

Complications consist of skin eye and hair problems as well as social and emotional issues.

  • Vision affects the learning process
  • Skin problem consists of sunburn and itching
  • Bullying
  • Low self-confidence
Prevention

It is a genetic disorder and occurs in family members. It is prevented by avoiding consanguinity.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made by:

  • Eye examination
  • Physical examination of skin and hair
  • Check the medical history and family history
Treatment

Albinism is a genetic disorder so there is no cure for this condition. The aim of treatment is to prevent complications and provide better vision and skin.

  • Skin cake to prevent the development of skin cancer
  • Eye care to prevent vision loss
Lifestyle and home remedies
  • Use sunblocks
  • Wear protective dress
  • Use protective eyeglasses
  • Use low vision aids
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