It is a most frequent type of cancer affecting the cells of bladder. Bladder is lined by the urothelial cells from within. This type of cells are also found in kidney and ureter but the cancer of urothelial cells in the bladder is most common.
Signs and symptoms of bladder cancer include:
- Blood in the urine
- Increase frequency of urination
- Painful micturation
- Lower back pain
Main cause of bladder cancer is the mutation in the urothelial cells that lead to the increase in the abnormal cell growth and inability of abnormal cells to die. As a result of which abnormally active cells continue to grown leading to the development of tumors. There are different types of bladder cancers some of them are : urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
After medical history and complete general physical examination following tests are done to diagnose the condition:
- Cystoscopy, it is a procedure in which inside of bladder is examined.
- CT scan
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Bone scan and chest X-ray for checking the metastasis.
- Bladder cancer can be low grade or high grade depending upon the level of differentiation.
Treatment options include:
- Surgery in order to remove cancer cells
- Intravesical chemotherapy
- Systematic chemotherapy
- Radiation therapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy.
- Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), cystectomy, neobladder construction, Ileal conduit, Continent urinary reservoir are some surgery options to be considered.