End-stage Renal Disease

End-stage Renal Disease

End-stage renal disease is also known as end-stage kidney disease. It is characterized by chronic and gradual loss of functions of kidney which ultimately leads to advanced state. When kidney can’t function properly; fluids, electrolytes and other waste substances buildup in body in dangerous levels.


Early disease is asymptomatic but later it presents with following signs and symptoms:End Stage Renal Disease SYMPTOMS CAUSES TREATMENT

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Decrease appetite
  • Problem in sleeping
  • Altered frequency of urination
  • Decrease cognitive functions
  • Muscle cramps
  • Edema of feet and ankles
  • Chest pain
  • Hypertension
  • Problematic breathing
  • Persistent fatigue

There are certain diseases and condition that lead to end-stage renal disease. They include:


Complications include:

  • Pulmonary edema
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Anemia
  • Decrease libido
  • Increase risk of fractures
  • Decrease immunity
  • Defects in central nervous system
  • Pericarditis
  • Problems during pregnancy
  • Irreversible damage to the kidneys

Diagnosis of end-stage renal disease depends upon detailed medical history and complete general physical examination of the patient. Other tests include the following:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests
  • Imaging tests like CT scan, X-rays, MRI
  • Biopsy of sample kidney tissue

Treatment options include:

  • Kidney transplant is usually the treatment of choice.
  • Dialysis is done which can be peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis
  • Supportive care is suggested to manage the symptoms better.
Lifestyle and home remedies
  • Limit the consumption of salt in your diet
  • Consume those foods that have low potassium content.
  • Consume recommended amount of proteins in diet.
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