It is an infrequent type of cancer that affects the bone leading to the disruption in the body’s production of blood cells normally. It belongs to a group of chronic leukemia known as myeloproliferative disorders.
Signs and symptoms depend upon the type of blood cell affected;
- Due to reduced number of RBCs causing anemia patient feels fatigue and weakness.
- Due to low level of platelets causing thrombocytopenia patient have bleeding tendencies and easy bruising.
- Splenomegaly causing pain below the ribs on left side.
- Night sweats.
- Bone pain.
Main cause in the mutation in the stem cells located in the bone marrow that affects every blood cell lineage. most common type of mutation is the Janus kinase 2 [JAK 2] mutation. Determination of the type of mutation give clue about the prognosis of disease and suitable treatment to be opted.
- Portal hypertension means increase pressure of the blood flowing through liver
- Abdominal and back pain.
- Clumps or tumors in other areas of body that causes severe complication like spitting of blood on coughing or seizures etc.
- Bleeding complications and acute leukemia.
Different tests and procedure are used to diagnose this condition such as;
- Blood tests showing complete blood counts.
- General physical examination.
- Imagining tests like X-ray and MRI
- Bone marrow biopsy and aspiration.
- Gene tests for the analysis of type of mutation in stem cells.
Myelofibrosis of low risk may not require immediate treatment but in high risk myelofibrosis combative treatment is required. For anemia blood transfusions, androgen therapy and thalidomide and related medicines are prescribed. For splenomegaly targeted drug therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or splenectomy is considered. Bone marrow transplants and palliative care therapy are among such options for aggressive for of myelofibrosis.
- Taking supplements of iron, folic acid can help in improving anemia.
- Peppermint tea can reduce nausea which occur because of chemotherapy.
- Meditation, yoga and social gathering can help to ease stress.