An infectious disease, tularemia also known as deer fly fever or rabbit fever is transmitted to humans by mammals while mode of transmission is often through insects. The disease is  spreadable and can cause sudden death if not treated early.


Latent period of infection is 3 to 5 days but can be upto 14 days. The symptoms depend on the site of infection and organ involved.

Ulceroglandular tularemia

This occurs most commonly with the following symptoms:DEER-FLY FEVER (TULAREMIA) SYMPTOMS CAUSES TREATMENT

  • Rigors / chills
  • Headache
  • Temperature
  • Fatigue
  • Ulcer at the site of entry
  • Lymphnodes have pain and swelling

Glandular tularemia

Except for the ulcer at the site of infection the rest of the symptoms are same as ulceroglandular tularemia.

Oculoglandular tularemia

Involves eyes with the symptoms as follows:

  • Edema and photophobia
  • Red eye
  • Discharge
  • Under surface of the eyelid having ulcers
  • Pain in the eyes

Oropharyngeal tularemia

Caused by uncooked meat.

  • Pain in the throat
  • Temperature
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Enlarged tonsils
  • Sores in the mouth
  • Enlarged neck lymph nodes

Pneumonic tularemia

Its symptoms re more like of pneumonia:

  • Pain in the chest
  • Cough
  • Breathing problem

Typhoidal tularemia

This is more threatening than the other. Its symptoms include:

  • Hepatomegaly
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • High temperature
  • Splenomegaly
  • Pneumonia

The disease is known to spread from animals who are infected with a bacteria F.tularensis. Its causes include:

  • Undercooked food and contaminated water
  • Being bitten by insects
  • Exposure of bacteria while gardening etc
  • Encountering with deceased or ill animals

It requires tests to check for bacteria F.tularensis in the sputum or blood. Other investigations include antibody titers and X-ray chest for pneumonia


Certain IV antibiotics are used such as:

Gentamycin or


Oral antibiotics are also given

Doxycycline (vibramycin, oracea, etc)

Treatment of complications (pneumonia, meningitis) is also added.

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